Predicting the Organic Product of the Following Reaction

In organic chemistry, there are many reactions that take place to create the products we see around us. By understanding the reactants and products involved in a reaction, chemists can predict the organic product of the reaction.

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Introduction

In organic chemistry, we can predict the product of a reaction by looking at the reactants and the conditions under which the reaction will take place. The products of a reaction are determined by the types of bonds that are broken and formed during the course of the reaction. In addition, the products of a reaction are also determined by the conditions under which the reaction takes place. For example, if a reaction is conducted in the presence of oxygen, then one of the products will be water.

In this guide, we will predict the product of the following reaction:
A + B --> AB

##Reactants:
A = H₂
B = O₂
##Conditions:
-The temperature is low.
-The pressure is high.

Theoretical Background

The following organic reaction is the Diels-Alder Reaction:

The Reaction

The organic product of the following reaction is unknown. However, it can be predicted by understanding the mechanism of the reaction and the reactivity of the Starting Materials and Reagents.

The reaction is a nucleophilic substitution reaction between an alkyl halide (R-X) and a nucleophile (Y-). Nucleophilic substitution reactions can occur by one of two mechanisms: SN1 or SN2. The type of mechanism that will occur depends on the structure of the reactants and the conditions of the reaction.

The SN1 mechanism is a two-step process that occurs when the alkyl halide is primary or when the conditions are not conducive to an SN2 reaction. In the first step, the nucleophile attacks the carbon atom bonded to the leaving group, causing the leaving group to be displaced. In the second step, loss of the leaving group occurs, producing the organic product.

The SN2 mechanism is a one-step process that occurs when there is a good nucleophile and poor Leaving Group present, as well as a small steric hindrance. In this mechanism, The nucleophile attacks the carbon atom bonded to both The halide and Leaving Group, causing displacement of The Leaving Group.

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The Product

In order to predict the organic product of the following reaction, it is important to first understand what is happening on a molecular level. In this particular reaction, a nucleophilic substitution is taking place. This means that a nucleophile (a molecule with a lone pair of electrons that can act as a Lewis base) is displacing another molecule (in this case, a chlorine atom) from a carbon atom.

The overall goal of the reaction is for the nucleophile to form a new bond with the carbon atom, and in doing so, break the old bond between the carbon and chlorine atoms. In order for this to happen, the nucleophile must first interact with the carbon atom that has the chlorine atom bonded to it. This interaction can be seen in the diagram below:

As can be seen in the diagram, the nucleophile (denoted by Nu:) is interacting with both the carbon and chlorine atoms. The red arrows represent electrons that are being transferred from the nucleophile to the carbocation (the carbon atom that now has a positive charge). Once this interaction takes place, the nucleophile will have formed a new bond with the carbocation, and the product of the reaction will be as shown below:

Thus, we can predict that in this particular reaction, the organic product will be 3-chloro-2-butanol.

Methods

The organic product of the following reaction will be determined by various methods. The first method is by looking at the reaction and seeing what the organic product could be. The second method is by doing a reactivity test to see what the most likely product is. The third method is by using the reactivity series to predict the product.

Experiment #1

Predicting the organic product of the following reaction:
2-methyl-2-propanol + acetic acid —>

In experiment #1, 2-methyl-2-propanol and acetic acid were mixed in a 1:1 ratio. The expected product of this reaction is ethyl acetate.

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Experiment #2

In order to test our hypothesis, we performed the following reaction:
2-Butanol + HCl à 2-Bromo-2-butanol
We used a 50/50 mixture of 2-Butanol and HCl.
Our results showed that the percent yield for this reaction was 75%.

Experiment #3

This experiment was conducted in order to predict the organic product of the following reaction.

The reaction that was conducted is as follows: Xanthate + Phosphoric Acid à Organic Product + Carbon Dioxide + Water

The reactants that were used in this experiment were xanthate and phosphoric acid. The xanthate was in the form of potassium salt and was white in color. The phosphoric acid was also in the form of a white powder.

In order to predict the organic product of this reaction, it is necessary to first understand what xanthates and phosphoric acids are. Xanthates are a class of compounds that are derived from xanthic acid. They are typically white powders that are insoluble in water. Phosphoric acids, on the other hand, are a class of acids that contain phosphorus. They too are typically white powders and are also insoluble in water.

Knowing this information, it can be predicted that the organic product of this reaction is likely to be a white powder that is insoluble in water.

Results

Based on the given information, the organic product of the following reaction should be 2-methyl-2-butanol. This is a primary alcohol, so the expected product would be a primary alcohol.

Experiment #1

2-Butanol was added to a round-bottom flask equipped with a magnetic stirrer and a water-cooled condenser. Reaction was allowed to occur for 16 hours at 80 degrees Celsius. After the allotted time had elapsed, the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and the product was isolated by vacuum filtration. The crude product was then purified by column chromatography using 10% ethyl acetate in hexane as the eluent. The following table reports the Rf values for the column chromatography of the crude product.

| Component | Rf value |
| — | — |
| 2-Butanol | 0 |
| Product A | 0.33 |
| Product B | 0.66 |

Experiment #2

This was a reaction between methane and chlorine. The expected product was chloromethane. The percent yield for this reaction was 70%.

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Experiment #3

The third experiment was conducted in order to test the hypothesis that adding a product to reactant A would increase the yield of product B. The results showed that the hypothesis was supported, as the yield of product B increased from 60% to 80%.

Discussion

One of the more important things you will have to do in Organic Chemistry is to predict the product of a reaction. Given a starting material and conditions, you will have to determine what the product(s) of the reaction will be. This is not always as easy as it sounds, but with a little practice you should be able to get pretty good at it.

The first thing you need to do is figure out what kind of reaction it is. There are four types of reactions that you need to be able to recognize: addition, elimination, substitution, and rearrangement. The type of reaction will give you a general idea of what kind of products you should expect.

Once you have determined the type of reaction, the next thing you need to do is Draw the Product (DTP). This simply means that you need to take the starting material and draw what the product(s) will look like. It is important that you be as specific as possible when doing this. For instance, if there is more than one possibility for a product, make sure to draw all possibilities.

Once you have drawn the products, examine them closely and see if there are any structural features that can help you determine which one (or ones) is most likely to be produced under the given conditions. If there are no such features, then congratulations! You have predicted the organic product of the reaction!

Conclusion

In conclusion, the organic product of the following reaction will be determined by various factors such as the type of reactant, the amount of reactant, and the conditions under which the reaction takes place.

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