Looking to learn how to draw the two major organic products of the reaction shown? Check out this blog post for a step-by-step guide!
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In this guide, you will learn how to draw the two major organic products of the reaction shown. This reaction is a nucleophilic substitution reaction, which means that a nucleophile (the molecule that attacks the electrophile) will replace another molecule. In this case, the nucleophile is water and the electrophile is the bromine atom.
The products of the reaction
The two major organic products
In many reactions, more than one organic product is formed. For example, the products of the reaction between ethene and chlorine are shown in the diagram below.
One way to predict the products of a reaction is to use a method known as electron pushing. This method involves drawing ‘arrows’ to show where electrons are moving during the reaction. The direction in which the arrows are pointing shows which product is being formed.
The two major organic products of the reaction between ethene and chlorine are chloroethane and vinyl chloride.
The other organic product
The other organic product is a ketone.
The mechanism of the reaction
In the reaction shown, two molecules of ethane react with one molecule of chlorine to form two molecules of chloroethane. The mechanism of this reaction involves the formation of a carbocation intermediate.
The first step
The first thing to do is draw the starting molecule in the center of the page. This is called the “substrate”. In this particular reaction, the substrate is butane. Make sure that the butane is pointing straight up and that all of the carbons and hydrogens are shown.
Next, draw an arrow coming off of the substrate pointing to the right. This arrow represents the first step in the reaction, which is called “attack by the nucleophile.” In this step, the nucleophile (which in this case is water) attacks one of the carbons on the butane molecule.
To show this, start by drawing a water molecule next to the butane molecule. Then, use a dotted line to connect one of the oxygen atoms on the water molecule to one of the carbons on the butane molecule. Finally, draw a single bond between these two atoms to show that they have bonded together.
The second step
The second step in the reaction is where the carbon-oxygen double bond in the carbonyl group is broken, and a new bond is formed between the oxygen and one of the hydrogen atoms from the other molecule of HBr. This process is called addition, because a new bond (and two new molecules) are being added to the carbonyl group.
The third step
The third and final step is the reduction of the ketone using sodium borohydride (NaBH4). Since this is a reduction reaction, it will produce an alcohol as one of the main products. The other main product will be determined by what happened in the first two steps of the reaction.
The two organic products of the reaction shown are a ketone and an aldehyde. To draw them, start by drawing the molecular structure of the reactants. Then, use curved arrows to show the electrons moving to form the new bonds in the products. The ketone will have a carbon-oxygen double bond, and the aldehyde will have a carbon-oxygen single bond.